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The main component of technological systems of heat power plants and industrial enterprises are special tower type structures — chimneys. The main purpose of chimneys is removal of gases from different thermal units with subsequent dispersion in the air. Chimneys are also intended for ensuring good furnace draft which depends on thickness-height ratio of the chimney channel. Natural draft in the heating structure is performed by replacement of hot layers of air with cold air.
Design of chimneys and their materials underwent big changes. New technologies of boiler systems forge ahead and that results in increase in efficiency of heating units, temperature of outgoing gases went down therefore there is no opportunity for prompt heating of the gas outlet channel. At the same time there is condensate collecting in chimneys and that leads to destruction of gas outlets made of bricks and standard steel. Application of modular systems of stainless steel gas outlets solves a problem of emergence of condensate in pipes.
Our company offers complex supply and installation of industrial chimneys or gas outlets, as well as individual performance of the services including: designing, production, installation of thermal insulation and heating, delivery, supply of processing equipment and assembly.
Designing and production of industrial chimneys and gas flues is performed according to the regulatory documents in force. Designing is performed on individual basis for every Customer.
Our specialists can help you to choose the optimal design variant for industrial chimneys and gas flues, taking into account all wishes, can offer the functional and least-cost solution meeting all requirements, regulatory documents and safety rules in force. Upon request of the Customer industrial chimneys can be produced with stairs, support frames, intermediate maintenance platforms and other auxiliary technological equipment. Taking into account further operation of chimneys they can be made of stainless steel or galvanized metal in reference to special features of further use.
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Outlet of combustion products is the main purpose of chimneys. They remove soot and smoke which obstruct passage of gases by settling down on its gas flues. The inner part of this structure is smooth in order to avoid this settlement.
There is one more purpose of chimneys: they provide draft in boiler units. The perfect variant is when combustion gases have temperature over 104 degrees at the output so that it will keep draft in a pipe.
The metal heat-insulated chimneys gradually replace brick industrial chimneys. These chimneys are often made of stainless steel or ferrous material. Such structures require maintenance from time to time otherwise performance will gradually go down because of blocking with soot and clogging. It is recommended to clean chimneys after the heating season when they are less operated. Regular inspections usually provide normal use of boiler room and prevent defects. Sometimes a mobile communication transmitter can be installed on the chimney which is over 30 meters; this will make the structure more multipurpose.
Basic fuel types for boiler rooms are liquefied hydrocarbons, natural gas, liquid fuel (oil, diesel) and solid fuel in form of turf, wood, husk, pellet of lignite charcoal and pit coal.
The draft is created due to difference of temperature of gases which are emitted when burned, and the environment. The draft is created due to combustion products which have higher temperature, than the environment and therefore they go up.
Parameters of industrial chimneys vary from 8 to 60 m in height and have one or several gas outlet channels, from 20 cm to 1 m in diameter, and sometimes even 1,5 m. Depending on parameters of a specific chimney and requirements to its technical characteristics, the following auxilary devices can be installed on this structure:
Self-supporting chimney is a metal single-shaft chimney of up to 30 m high to which gas pipes from one or more units are connected. During selection of this type of chimney it is necessary to consider the need of such design for your case. It is necessary to consider technical parameters and operating modes of unit which you are going to connect to the chimney. Be very attentive to this issue if you plan to connect horizontal gas exhaust duct to one chimney. The amount of removed combustion product during operation of all connected units at maximum performance should correspond to chimney capacity.
In general self-supporting chimneys include the following elements:
The main advantage of such pipes is rather low-cost production and erection.
But self-supporting pipes have also disadvantages:
This type of gas exhaust structure consists of supporting truss shaft and one or several heat-insulated gas flues. 1-6 gas exhaust ducts of different diameter can be installed to the supporting shaft. Such pipes can be up to 50 m high. Each gas flue can be up to 1,5 m in diameter. Each gas exhaust duct is made from modular gas flues.
The heat-insulated gas flues of modular type have three-layer structure. The layers consist of materials which are resistant to high temperature and acid environment which is created by condensate:
The truss (supporting structure) is made using rolled tubular products of various section, three- or quadrangle, that depends on quantity of gas exhaust ducts. The outer surface of the shaft is painted with high-quality and modern coating materials with increased content of zinc. There is also a possibility of arrangement of stairways and maintenance platform inside the truss.
The next advantage of such pipes is rather small weight of the whole product that simplifies transportation and erection. The total structure of the truss pipe reduces wind load to the foundation. Metal pipes under GOST 10704-91, which are connected by means of horizontal angles and bracing systems, are the supporting elements of the supporting tower.
Appearance of the tower can be adjusted, but only in a way which has no contradictions with regulatory documents and safety rules. Additional, though optional elements for such pipes are: stairways, lightning rod, warning lights, maintenance platforms, condensate extractor, explosive valves, horizontal sections and cleanout.
Columned-type chimney is an independent self-supporting structural unit. The supporting structure of the columned-type pipe is fastened to the anchor basket in the foundation.
The structure of this chimney consists of outer supporting shell and a package of inner gas exhaust ducts. 1-5 ducts of different diameter can be installed in the shell. In general the columned self-supporting pipes are up to 34,5 dm in diameter and up to 60 m high. Inner gas exhaust ducts are made of stainless steel. Thickness and brand of stainless steel is chosen depending on corrosive power and temperature of gases. Each gas flue can be up to 1,5 m in diameter. Besides, the general gas flue can be used for more than one boiler. In that case the gas flue can be up to 3 m in diameter.
Gas exhaust ducts are covered from the outside by heat insulator which preventing condensate inside the ducts.
Thickness and brand of heat insulator is chosen depending on corrosive power and temperature of gases. In general 5-6 cm basalt rock wool is used for insulation of pipes. Insulation of exhaust pipes in co-generation plants and gas engine power plants is usually 11-12 cm thick.
The structure of ducts itself allows implementation of extraction of condensate and precipitates. Besides, it allows implementation of cleaning of their lower part. The supporting shell is made of sheet steel of different thickness. The outside surface of pipes is painted with high-quality up-to-date materials with high content of zinc. The upper third of the pipe is equipped with intertseptors — dynamic absorber — which are required in order to avoid the wind resonance. If necessary, maintenance platform, warning lights and stairways can be installed on the top of the pipe.
Esthetic appearance is provided by the features of the structure which belongs to this type of industrial pipes. Besides, a good advantage is not only the small area of the structure, but also the fact that gas exhaust ducts are inaccessible to vandals and hooligans. This type of pipes is best suitable for installation on unprotected objects and within the city.
Guyed chimney is a metal single-shaft pipe fixed by a certain quantity of guys or stays. Purpose of this structure is removal of flue gas and common smoke from different types of industrial plants.
Such gas flues with guys are widespread in the industry due to certain advantages which include: low cost, buildability and ease of erection.
This type of pipes is made by rolling of steel sheets to shells and shell stitching at the required length, the shaft of the lower part of the chimney is fastened to the mounting base. The structure is equipped with stiffeners which provide strong fastening of the gas exhaust channel. The amount of bending moments which are caused by lateral loads is reduced by means of guys which are made of rod steel with diameter of 1,6-2 cm.
Determination of height and diameter of the pipe is performed on the basis of aerodynamic, thermo-technical and even ecological calculations.
Guys should be fastened at 30 degrees to gas exhaust channel.
However this design has also disadvantages, for example, short service life. Even the most proper use of pipe won’t allow using it longer than 8-15 years. Large area is required to place buttress piers which are necessary for fastening guys. Besides it is necessary to perform great volume of ground work for arrangement of the foundation, and for this reason it is more material-intensive.
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